The speeches are free of charge but please note that the Empire Club of Canada retains copyright. Neither the speeches themselves nor any part of their content may be used for any purpose other than personal interest or research without the explicit permission of the Empire Club of Canada.
A brief history of Toronto, Kingston, and other ports along the St. Lawrence Seaway. Some statistics of use of the Seaway, particularly by ocean-going vessels. The close relationship between trade and transportation. What most people don't realize in terms of shipments of manufacturing goods, and the stature enjoyed by Toronto as an ocean port. How such an inland community became an important port for ocean-going vessels. A more detailed history of the Seaway. The Welland Ship Canal and the benefits it provided to the whole Canadian economy, exemplified by the new route for exported Canadian wheat. The issue of tolls, demanded by the United States in an agreement for completion of the enlarged Seaway, and how that turned the Seaway into a troubled artery, retaining that "unenviable position" right down to the present day. Economic benefits of the Seaway for Canada. The "but." An explication of the issue of tolls and how it threatens the future of the Seaway and the Welland Ship Canal, leading, the speaker hopes, to a realization as to why the Great Lakes Waterways Development Association is so opposed to tolls on all Canadian Waterways, be they coastal or inland.