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Today the anniversary of the hardest fought election in South African history. Some background to this event. The second Nationalist victory and why it was momentous. The problem of the division of the white and black races in South Africa. The premise of the National party that the preservation of the identity of the white race is the main object. The United party as the party that represents most of the opponents of the present Government. The United party never altogether whole-hearted in its opposition to this premise of the National party, and why. Some political history of these two parties. A tremendous change in the South African situation, started by the defeat of the United party a year ago. Now the United party opposing the government squarely on its whole concept of race relations. Discovering that liberal opinion is very much stronger than anyone had supposed it to be. Changes going on in the minds of a large proportion of the English-speaking people, and why that is happening. The basic problem in South Africa one of how to create a harmonious community out of conflicting racial and national groups, and the essence of the solution of that problem to give a share of political power to the colored races to whom it has hitherto been denied. How this can be done, if it can be done at all. The Nationalists' way of creating harmony: silencing the discordant notes. The inflexible opposition of the Nationalists. The significance of the movement of the principal opposition party in a liberal direction: clarifying an issue which has always been rather obscure. The voter's conscience. The Nationalist party being forced to go before the electorate and justify the assumption on which its policy is based. The future of South Africa. The speaker's fear that as tension between the races grows, the policy of white supremacy will appeal increasingly to the white population, and since the white population is the only one with political power this will be the policy dominant in Parliament and the law. Underestimating the determination of the underprivileged races to get justice, and the impact on South Africa of world opinion.