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Social equality: different meanings at different times. What the speaker means by social equality now: income equality. The distribution of incomes closely associated with the degree of development of an economy. International comparisons to be made only in the broadest of terms. A useful analysis. Ways of examining the pattern of income distribution. How Canada fares. The problem of inequality in Canada. Solutions that have been tried. A summary shows that it is not the tax system, but rather government expenditure policies, especially the social welfare system, that works to redistribute income in favour of the poor. The inadequacy of fiscal measures. The concept of equality and how it has found expression on two battlefronts: the war against poverty and the fight against discrimination. Techniques used to deal with social inequality. Challenges to the principle of equal opportunity. Redefining equality of opportunities in a broader context, closer to the real working of markets and institutions. Findings from such a re-examination. The necessity for additional measures: measures that affect the demand for labour; programs that focus specifically on the groups that we want to bring back fully into the productive stream. The need for strenuous and well-directed efforts.