Vladimir Putin

Merchant, The Honorable Livingston T.

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The function of diplomacy to defend the vital interests of a country and to exhaust every means of honorably resolving conflicts of interest; resolving them by negotiation in the unceasing effort to establish an enduring peace with justice. The speaker's fascination with, and remarks on, the Congress of Vienna nearly 150 years ago. Settling various problems of protocol as one of the greatest achievements of the Congress. The question of the problem of precedence, with illustrative example. A consideration of some of the techniques of diplomacy of the past and an examination of some of the techniques of diplomacy employed or forced upon us today. Improvements in the art of communication. The speed of modern communications coupled with the complexity of relations between states today leading to great changes since the Congress of Vienna. How the diplomat makes use of improvements in communication. How modern communications have made possible to an unprecedented degree the conduct of personal diplomacy by the chief officers of a government, with some illustrative examples. The diplomat of the past with more absolute authority than his modern successor, partly due to the snail's pace of communications. The speaker's belief that the improved speed of communications has in fact diminished the ability of an Ambassador to influence events with the course of which he is concerned. The tendency to centralize the decision-making process in the home capital. The increasing importance of the ambassador as an adviser. The spread of the tenets of popular democracy as another phenomena that has had a tremendous impact upon the conduct of diplomacy, and how that is so. NATO as a signal example of what well informed popular democracies will support. The modern diplomat having his decisions and actions exposed to public controversy, due to the growth of democratic processes and with developments in the field of mass communications. The continuing need for confidential negotiations among government representatives. Factors which affect international agreement. Difficulties of determining the balance between the right of the people of a democracy to be informed and the necessity of safeguarding the success of the negotiations. How popular democracy has made the work of the diplomat more difficult. The recent widespread appearance of multilateral diplomacy, with the United Nations as an example. The development of collective security arrangements, with the North Atlantic Treaty as an example. A look at various alliances made throughout history. What is needed to arrive at common agreement in a period of peace. Recent examples of areas of disagreement. Learning to extract the best from multilateral diplomacy. Some remarks on the relationship between Canada and the United States. The revolution in the world political environment over the last 150 years. The object of diplomacy which stands unchanged: the maintenance of peace with justice.