EST. 1903 - Presenting global influential leaders from business, labour, education & government through events
Zimmern, Professor Albert
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A reversal from the speaker's last address in Toronto three years ago with regard to the best hope for the permanent reconstruction of Europe after the war, and for establishing the results of that peace for which those in Canada and Great Britain made such great sacrifices. The need to look at the whole problem of the Geneva Protocol an the guaranteeing of security of the members of the League in the light of history, not in the light of passing events only. What the war achieved in Europe. Canada now asked to make a decision as to whether that new system shall merely be a copy of the old one, an alignment of rival powers into military alliances with competitive armaments, or a co-operative system built up of mutual confidence between the democracies, a system with an enduring organization and enduring engagements between its members. The League of Nations as the natural agency for filling this vacuum, and how that is so. The work done over the last five years by the League of Nations, much of which is not known to the public. A description of the League of Nations and what they do. Particular concern for another side of the League's work, as a League of mutual insurance, of mutual protection. Remembering some of the arguments from 1919 with regard to the occupation of the Rhine. The way in which the small powers have taken their place side by side with the large powers at Geneva. The League's steady gain in authority. A definite movement of reconstruction and revival that has taken place in Europe. The Assembly of 1924: a review. The Geneva Protocol. The speaker's prediction with regard to Mr. Chamberlain's reaction to the draft of the Protocol. The desirability of putting the Protocol back for further inquiry. The details of the document, two principles back of it: that war is declared to be a crime; that the criminal state is the state which under the condition of tension or outbreak of hostilities declares itself unwilling to submit the dispute to arbitration. A discussion of these and other salient points follows. What the Protocol does: that the obligation to take action against a law-breaker is both moral and legal, and that that assistance must be loyal and effective; each of the signatories is obliged to co-operate in support of the Covenant. Limiting the need of the actual help to be given. An interesting technical point about the operation of sanctions. The nature of compulsory arbitration. Questions of domestic jurisdiction. Controversy about the Japanese Amendment. The attitude of Great Britain and Canada to this document. The dilemma in Great Britain as to how to co-operate with the peoples of Europe. The impossibility of a policy of isolation, and why that is so. The only real opponents of this document. Urging the audience to study the document, and the problems with which it is associated, to be discussed before 55 nations at Geneva next September.