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What Civil Service means: that appointments to the public service and promotions therein shall be determined by competitive examinations. This reform not recommended as a perfect system, but as a vast improvement over the system of appointments by patronage committees and of the exercise of partisan pressure in order to effect promotions alike in the inside and in the outside services. Some illustrative instances. Abating, but not eliminating, the nuisance of patronage. No darker days in British history than those in which a despotic monarch and a debauched parliament employed the public offices to destroy public freedom and control public policy. No page in American history so foul with corruption as when the public offices were made the spoil of party. The story in Canada, less sordid, but where an administration of patronage has been a fruitful source of public evils, an intolerable nuisance, and a noxious, evil-smelling thing to citizens. The crying need for reform of the Civil Service in Canada and for the protection of honest and efficient public officers from the spoils elements which corrupts and bedevils the administration of public affairs. A consideration of Government controls over appointments to various Services and Departments, to the Supreme Court and provincial courts, over selection of governors of the provinces and appointments to the Senate. The speaker's contention that reform of the Senate should go hand in hand with reform of the Civil Service. The benefits of a strong and independent civil service. Reform demanded in the interest of the service, in the interest of public morals, and in the interest of national efficiency.