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The changing character and aspects of crime that occur with the ever-varying conditions of social and political life. The need for a study of the problems and tendencies of crime for the well-being of every community. Social progress. The many distinct ideals in terms of criminology. The origins of such ideals, both from within and partly from without penal jurisdiction. Some statistics on crime from England. The failure of the transportation system admitted and abandoned. The value of this experiment in its object lessons. The principle of working with the criminal as well as for him adopted. Embracing the industrial, educational, religious, and disciplinary methods which are proving to be reformative and curative agencies. The fact that opportunity succeeds where mere cruelty in the past has failed in a treatment of our criminal classes. The need to treat the whole man. An examination of the criminal and his effect upon society. Understanding the criminal by first setting him in a frame of general history, illuminating him by a knowledge and a philosophy of human nature and a psychology that takes account of all facts and goes far enough beyond nerves and grey matter to reach the real man with a will, a hope and a conscience. Some statistical data with regard to crime and criminals in the United Kingdom. Principal conclusions as to the increase and decrease of crimes and offences to be drawn from British statistics. Some statistics from Canada and the United States, India, Australia, Victoria, New Zealand, and Egypt.