Smith, Prof. H.A.
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Some introductory remarks on national and imperialism. The importance of the accurate use of words. How far Canada has already gone along the path of independent diplomacy; how far are we prepared to go? The first a question of fact; the second a question of policy. Much misunderstanding about the facts. Getting our facts right if our policy is not going to be wrong. An examination of the word diplomacy and the many things that it covers. What a treaty is. The three parts into which a treaty falls: negotiation, signature, ratification. A discussion of each part. A look at the text of the Full Power issued in connection with the Halibut Treaty for illustrative purposes. The Halibut Treaty as an example of a treaty signed by a Canadian representative because the Canadian Government objected to the British Ambassador being allowed to sign it at all. Insisting upon the accurate use of the word ratification. Saving clauses which reserve to the Dominions the right of saying that it shall not apply to this Dominion or that until the Dominion in question has consented as part of the practice over the last 30 years in negotiating general treaties which affect the Empire as a whole. The Treaty of Locarno as the best and most recent example of this practice. What this means to the Dominions with regard to what they are bound. Certain kinds of informal national agreement which are not treaties, and to which what the speaker has said does not apply, with example. The Reciprocity Agreement, negotiated by Sir Wilfrid Laurier in 1911. The more important business of diplomacy--the daily duties which attract very little attention. What is entirely done for us by Great Britain. The staff of the British Foreign Office and what they do. Annual cost of maintaining this Office. A diplomatic staff maintained by Great Britain at her own expense, for the benefit of the Empire as a whole. Canada's small department of External Affairs in Ottawa. Permission to nominate a Resident Minister, not an Ambassador, at Washington. When Dominion representatives can and should be invited to take part in discussions. A summary of Canada's position with regard to Diplomacy. The issue of how far we are prepared to go. A review of suggestions that have been made, and objections to them. The issue of consultation. Two different movements which have been brought to birth since the outbreak of the war: one which has resulted in the creation of a vast number of new small states, bringing with them new problems of all kinds; another the great unifying forces drawing nations together in the League of Nations and in the World Court. The British Empire. The speaker's belief that we would be extremely unwise to press our claims to a point which would imperil that greater unity upon which the existence of our own nationality depends.