Vladimir Putin

Sykes, Brigadier General Sir Percy

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Historical events that shaped the civilization of the present day. The development of sea power just before the close of the fifteenth century. The discovery of the ocean route to India. The discovery of the New World. The Treaty of Tordesillas, and the division of the ocean routes between Portugal and Spain. The world situation when our ancestors decided to start exploring. John Cabot's scheme of exploration in the New World. The voyages and discoveries of John Cabot, Jacques Cartier, Champlain. The Jesuit fathers and the fur-traders of the North as some of Canada's eminent explorers. The adventures of Alexander Mackenzie. Recent confirmation of Mackenzie's observations by Captain Bishop, a leading explorer of British Columbia. The exploration of the Arctic of the English in the sixteenth century undertaken with a view to reaching China and a market for English broadcloth. Sir High Willoughby and Richard Chancellor sailing in 1553 to discover the north-east passage. Attempts to find the North-West Passage by Frobisher and by Davis. Discoveries by Hudson and Baffin. Drake's sail through the Magellan Straits into the Pacific. The defeat of the Spanish Armada. Winning the Empire of India. The epoch of Captain Cook, first winning distinction as a surveyor of the St. Lawrence. Cook's successor, Vancouver. The successor of Cook in Australia, Flinders who circumnavigated Tasmania in 1798. Stuart's discovery of the Darling River in Australia. Exploration and exploits in Africa. The adventures of Mungo Park. The epoch of Livingstone, serving as a missionary in Bechuanaland, crossing the Kalahari Desert, discovering Lake Nigami in 1849, and further adventures. Carrying out the active suppression of slavery on land. Livingstone's memorial Burton and Speke and the discovery of Lake Tanganyika. The building of the British Empire. The present situation in Persia. The Persian oil fields.