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The commercial history of Western Canada, beginning in 1670 with the charter by which Charles II constituted Prince Rupert and 17 of his friends "the Governor and Company of Adventurers Trading into Hudson's Bay," permitting them to trade over an area of 2,500,000 square miles. The obligation in return for these tremendous privileges. The difference between the elk and beaver and the voluminous reports of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), the Canadian National Railway (CNR), and other large concerns, is the difference between Western Canada without transportation and Western Canada with transportation. The pioneering instinct and how it has made us what we are. The impulse that brings people to Canada, not always the desire to acquire a little money. The influence of the elemental quality in virile mankind. A dip into the earlier literature of the Prairie Provinces. Men who looked for railways as eagerly as a lost voyageur looks for the dawn. The CPR in this connection as the forerunner of us all. Remembering the conditions under which that great enterprise was accomplished. A brief history of the CPR. The opening up of the Territories by the CPR. The nature of the CPR builders. The early history of hard times. Some facts about the CPR today with regard to population growth, immigration, land sold to settlers. Details of the CPR operations, referring to the lines west of Lake Superior. The Canadian Northern system, responsible over the last ten years for the creation of 150 townsites. One-third of the growth of Winnipeg in this century directly due to the business opened up by the Canadian Northern. Connection to Easter Canada by Western lines. Ways in which the railways are more vital to the national prosperity than water. The function of railways transportation in the West to keep open communication with the East. Commercial importance. The need for more communication to and from the West for Canadian solidarity. Thinking Imperially. The speaker's suggestion that in the wise elucidation of transportation problems lies the premier aid to strengthening the ties that hold a loosely-compacted body politic together. A comparison of railways in Great Britain and in Canada, particularly from the viewpoint of economics.