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The Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry: unique in that there has been an impact study before, not after a large-scale frontier project. Details of the project. Social, environmental and economic impact. An address regarding the environmental impact. Problems of projecting an environmental impact. The fragility of many northern species. The importance of the history of the northern frontier to the history of North America. The concept of progress. The growth of ecological awareness. An outline of some of the environmental questions. The National Parks Act. Individual species affected. The feasability of a whale sanctuary in west Mackenzie Bay. A reconciliation of goals. Painful choices.